There are several methods of navigation used by pilots to find their way from place to place on this earth of ours.
-- navigation by reference only to landmarks.
...2. Dead reckoning -- navigation by use of predetermined vectors of wind and true airspeed and precalculated heading, groundspeed and estimated time of arrival.
...3. Radio navigation -- navigation by use of radio aids, that is, navigation signals broadcast by radio station on the ground or from satellites.
...4. Celestial navigation -- navigation by measuring angles to heavenly bodies such as sun, moon or stars to determine position on the earth.
...5. Inertial navigation -- navigation by self-contained airborne gyroscopic equipment or electronic computers that provide a continuous display of position.
The most pilots use these various methods of navigation in combination...
Coordinated Universal Time (UTC)
In order to have a uinversal standard time for reference at any point on the earth, it has been eastablished and is known as Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). UTC is also refered to as Z time. UTC replaces GMT which was the universal accepted standard for the measurement of time until December 1985.
Air traffic control and meteorological facilities in both Canada and the United States operate on UTC, or Z time, not local time. a pilot flying on a long cross country flight would be wise to adjust his personal wrist watch to UTC and refer to it when radioing position reports. Such a precaution will eliminate any change of error in reporting time since it is often most difficult to determine extactly when one zone (which, to add to the confusion, might be on local daylight saving time) end and another begins. To be one hour in error when reporting to an air traffic control unit could have seriours consequences.
is UTC used as the acronym for Coordinated Universal Time instead of CUT?
In 1970 the Coordinated Universal Time system was devised by an international advisory group of technical experts within the International Telecommunication Union (ITU). The ITU felt it was best to designate a single abbreviation for use in all languages in order to minimize confusion. Since unanimous agreement could not be achieved on using either the English word order - CUT, or the French word order - TUC, the acronym UTC was chosen as a compromise.
Aviation Joke - "Only one engine left"
A 747 was halfway across the atlantic when the captain got on the loud speaker. "Attention, passengers. We have lost one of our engines, but we can certainly reach London with the three we have left. Unfortunately, we will arrive an hour late as a result."
Shortly thereafter, the passengers hear the captain's
voice again, "Guess what, folks. We just lost our third engine, but please
be assured we can fly with only one. We will now arrive in London three hours
late." At this point, one passenger become furious. "For Pete's
sake," he shouted, "If we lose another engine, we'll be up here
The first recorded model helicopter was designed by the Chinese. During the 4th century BC, children fixed feathers to the top of small round sticks. As well as this principle, a toy named Bamboo Dragonfly in early Formosa which is consisted of a bamboo propellers and a bamboo round stick per Fig. 1 which look like a dragonfly. As they spun the stick between the palms of their hands the bamboo propellers, angled slightly to catch the breeze, rotated in the manner of a modern propeller, lifting the primitive helicopters into the air.
....... .... Fig.1
The first helicopter patent to be granted by the British Patent Office was awarded to Henry Bright in 1859. Comprising two contra-rotating co-axial two -bladed rotors mounted on a vertical shaft per Fig.2, it was subsequently adopted by numerous 20th- century pioneers.
Largest Aircraft - Hindenburg
Hindenburg still holds the record as the largest aircraft ever to fly, A size comparison of the Hindenburg with mutiple 3 length of a 747. The Titanic is only 78 feet longer than the Hindenburg at 882 feet long per Fig. 3. To read more detail about Hindenburg at http://www.ciderpresspottery.com/ZLA/greatzeps/german/Hindenburg.html
Fig. 3 A size comparison of Hindenburg with 747 and Titanic.
The Statistics of LZ-129 Hindenburg as Length: 804 feet/245.06 meters, Diameter: 135 feet/41.15 meters, gas Volume: 7,063,000 cu. feet/211,890 cu. meters, Engines: Four 1200 hp Mercedes Benz engines, Maximum Speed: 84.4 mph/135 km/h, Lifting Gas Type: Hydrogen.
Uufortunately, this German Zeppelin LZ 129 Hindenburg caught fire see Fig.4 and was utterly destroyed in less than one minute while approaching a mooring mast at Lakehurst Naval Air Station in New Jersey on May 6, 1937, at 18:25 local time. Of the 97 people on board, 13 passengers and 22 crew-members were killed. One member of the ground crew also died, bringing the death toll to 36.
Fastest Aircraft - Hypersonic X (X-43A)
Guinness World Records recognized NASA's X-43A cramjet with a new world speed record for a jet-powered aircraft - Mach 9.6, or nearly 7,000 mph. The X-43A set the new mark and broke its own world record on its third and final flight on Nov. 16, 2004. It is compared with other well known aircrafts such as Concorde at Mach 2.05, F16 Fighting Falcon at Mach 2, Boeing 747 at max Mach 0.92. "Mach Number" was named after the Austrian physicist Ernst Mach. Mach 1 is the speed of sound, which is approximately 760 miles per hour. The revolutionary "scramjet" aircraft then burned its engine for around 11 seconds during the flight over the Pacific Ocean.s
The SR-71 Blackbird is the fastest aircraft in the world to take off under its own power. Developed for the USAF as reconnaissance aircraft more than 30 years ago, SR-71s are still the world's fastest and highest-flying production aircraft. The aircraft can fly more than Mach 3 for cruising more than one hour.
The paraglider is the lightest aircraft in the world. It is foot launched which means we don`t need wheels to take off or land. Using state of the art fabrics they combine the security of a parachute with modern wing design to produce an aircraft that is very easy to launch, fly and land. It is totally flexible and the entire aircraft fits in a backpack.
The Paragliders came from a design in the 60s, when engineers were attempting to create an aircraft to recuperate space capsules. Paragliding and hangliding were born from this need to have a steerable parachute. Since then, the difference between these parachutes and paragliders has grown.
The aircraft used a Microturbo TRS-18 turbojet engine which was manufactured in France and in the U.S. under license from Microturbo. The BD-5J holds the Guinness world record for smallest jet propelled aircraft.
The specification as Primary Fuction: Recretion, Engines/Thrust: 1-326 lbs, Weight Empty: 432 lbs, Max. Weight: 860 lbs, Fuel Capacity: 36 gals, Height: 5'7", Length: 12'5", Wing Span: 17", Stall Speed: 67 mph, Cruise Speed: 240 mph, Max. Speed: 300 mph, Innitial Climb: 2,400 fpm, Takeoff Distance: 1,800 feet, landing Distance: 1,000 feet, Ceiling: 26,000 feet, Range: 400 miles, Year Deployed: 1977.
The Guiness Book of World Records credits the Bumble Bee II as the world's smallest biplane. Unfortunately on the day of its first flight, after making several passes at a height of about 400 feet, the aircraft's engine quit. The plane was completely destroyed in the resulting crash. Starr, the pilot, was seriously injured, but eventually fully recovered from his injuries.
Although the Bumble Bee II was lost, the original Bumble Bee is on display at the Pima Air & Space Museum in Tuscon, AZ.
Primary Function: Recreation, Crew: one, Engine: 85 hp, Weight Empty: 396 lbs, Max. Weight: 574 lbs, Cruise Speed: 133 mph, Max. Speed: 190 mph, Climb Rate: 4,500 fpm, Ceiling: 14,000 feet, Rang: n/a, First Flight: 5/8/88
The world's smallest jet fighter. The McDonnell XF-85 Goblin was designed to be launched from a bomber, intercept enemy fighters, and return to the bomber using a hook and trapeze. It would then fold its wings and be lifted back into the bomb bay. It had no landing gear, but could use a steel skid under the fuse- lage and small runners on its wing tips for emergency landings.
Test pilots reported the XF-85 as stable, easy to fly, and able to recover well from spins. However they found that due to turbulence from the mother ship it was difficult to hook up to the bomber's trapeze. The test program was cancelled with the advent of mid-air refueling. So there only two were built.
The Specifications as Primary Function: Fighter/escort. Crew: one. Length: 14'10". Wingspan: 21'1". Wingapan Folded: 5'. Height: 8'4". Weight Empty: 4,550 lbs. Combat Speed: 581 mph. Max. Speed: 664 mph. Climb Speed: 12,500 fpm. Ceiling: 48,000 feet. Range: 773 miles. Machine Guns: 4-.50 cal. First Flight: 8/12/48.
Tell your friend about this Cute Fighter www.koonysun.com/avi_knowledge.htm#CuteFighter
Unusual Looking Aircraft
V73 front view
XF5U side view
The specifications of XF5U are Primary function: experimental, crew: one, Engines: 2 - R 1,350 hp each, Length: 28'7", Wingspan: 32'6", Weight empt: 13,107 lbs, Max weight: 18,770 lbs, Machine guns: 6 - 0.50 cal, Ordnance: 2,000 lbs, Cruise speed: 175 mph, Max. speed: 425 mph, Climp rate: 720 fpm, Ceiling: 34,500 feet, Range: 1,050 miles, Fist flight: November 23, 1942.
The above picture is a front coverpage of POPULAR MECHANICS MAGAZINE issued in July 1930's. you may see the dream future airplane in that time.
Please compare this dream airplane with XF5U which they are very similar each other.
The world 's smallest Helicopter
The GEN H-4 is one of the latest achievements in helicopter evolution with a rotor diameter of 13 feet 1 inch and an empty weight of 155 lbs., the GEN H-4 helicopter is recognized by the Guinness Book of Records as the world's smallest helicopter.
............. GEN H-4
The GEN H-4 helicopter prototype, looking much as it appears today, was first shown to the public in 1997. Since that time a number of flights have been successfully completed. GEN H-4 helicopter controls are relatively simple. Rotor speed will make the helicopter climb and descend. Moving the control stick will result in the helicopter flying in that direction. The helicopter has four engines. Should one fail, the others are intended to provide sufficient control to land the helicopter safely. Safety concerns have been raised regarding the helicopter's lack of auto rotation, under one hour endurance with five gallon fuel capacity, and lack of quick control responses due to fixed pitched rotor blades. It appears that a total of seven of the helicopters were sold. The last entry on the GEN H-4 website is dated Dec. 4, 2006.
GEN H-4 Specifications
Max. Cruise Speed:
4 x 125 cc 2C
4 x 10 h.p. ea.
6,500 feet (est.)
The largest helicopter
The Mil Mi-12 helicopter is bigger than a Boeing 727 airliner which is the largest helicopter ever to fly. It first flew on July 10, 1968.
Two prototype Mil Mi-12 aircraft were built. They never met design specifications and the program was canceled. One aircraft remains on display in Russia. The second is said to be at the Leontjewitsch Mil plant in Lyubertsy-Panki.
The helicopter features two-rotors mounted to a wing on top of the fuselage. This is the only example of such a system ever used by Mil, and rare for any relatively modern helicopter. A tail rotor is not necessary for aircraft control, and thus eliminated in the design.
The helicopter used wings to support its weight while flying. Their unique design made their outboard portions wider than where the wings met the airframe.
The Mil Mi-12 had a fuselage and tail unit similar to a fixed wing transport. It had a flight crew of six. The cargo hold measuring 92 ft. (28.15 m) by 14 1/2 ft. (4.4 m) would be able to handle different loads, including troops or handling crews.
Production commenced in 1965 with its first prototype. In 1969, the helicopter set a number of payload to altitude records.
4- 5,645 shp ea.
2- 114' 10"
First Mass Production Aircraft
The Etrich Taube entered production in 1910 and became the first German scout aircraft of World War I to be produced in numbers. The aircraft was used as an escort, in the attack role, as an observation aircraft, and for pilot training.
The aircraft is also known as the Etrich Rumpler Taube and the Rumpler Taube. It was invented by Igo Etrich and produced by Edmund Rumpler. When Etrich withdrew from the partnership it became known as the Rumpler Taube.
Controls of the Taube were similar to other early aircraft. Rather than ailerons, the trailing edges of the wings had cables attached to them. These were pulled downward to create drag, lowering the wing to make the aircraft turn. On some Taube aircraft their two diminutive rudders were hinged. They were operated in a similar manner to aircraft of today. The elevator did not have a hinged surface. It was moved in a similar fashion to the wings. This technique is known as “wing warping.”
The wing coverings of the Taube allowed light to pass through them, making the aircraft difficult to see when passing overhead, especially on a bright day. When combined with a relatively quiet engine, and stable flight characteristics, these qualities made the aircraft particularly effective for reconnaissance and observation.
Taube aircraft crews carried a small number of 4 1/2 to 6 1/2 lb. bombs and hand grenades with them on some missions. They were deployed on bombing missions over both England and France. The aircraft also escorted Zeppelins on bombing raids. While not equipped with machine guns, Taube crews often armed themselves with hand guns to use against their enemies.
It wasn't long before other more maneuverable, faster aircraft replaced the Taube over the front lines of the War. However, it continued on for a short time as a trainer of new pilots.
A total of approximately 494 Taube aircraft of all types were produced by a number of factories throughout Germany.
| Primary Function:
Mercedes 6 cyl.
Piaggio P180 Avanti
Piaggio P180 Avanti
Piaggio P180 Avanti
Twin pusher turboprops, a sleek fuselage, forward canard, and a high "T" tail enable Avanti aircraft to carry up to nine passangers at 1,600 mile distances at jet-like speeds.
Due to its pusher prop propulsion, the Avanti does not sound like a typical turboprop. However the location of the propellers behind the passenger cabin keeps the interior noise level to an absolute minimum.
And all of this comfort comes with turboprop economy and efficiency. The Piaggio P180 Avanti is said to have 30 percent better fuel efficiency than a similar size turbojet aircraft.
A special laminar flow wing enables more engine power to go directly into pushing the aircraft forward through the air, rather than fighting drag producing friction.
The fuselage produces lift in conjunction with the main wing, front canards, and horizontal stabilizer located on top of a T-tail. The canards are not movable and therefore do not contribute to the control of the aircraft. The combination of the lifting surfaces makes for an aerodynamically efficient aircraft.
Piero Ferrari helped bring the P180 project to fruition after Avanti Aviation ran short of money. In October of 2005, the 100th aircraft rolled off of the factory assembly line.
A total of over 175 Piaggio P180 Avanti aircraft have been produced to date.
one or two
2- T 850 shp ea.
Ticketime - New Boarding Pass
|<<< click each to enlarge|
A new boarding pass design concept called Ticketime features a fringe electronic paper strip that can be ripped off and wound around the wrist like a watch. The time displayed on the watch will be set to the time zone of the destination zone you’re headed to, and will be set by the airline/train/bus folks at the time you collect your ticket.
The two ends of the strip have magnetic dots that can be used to fasten the “watch” and also serve to power the unit.
You can keep the watch for the duration of the trip. The strips are recyclable and would need be returned back to the transportation provider when you check in for your return trip.
Did you know ???
(These questions were come from AOPA PILOT magazine 2000 issues.)
.... See answer on the bottom page of Aero Collection Show .
1. Why did pilot of yore wear white silk scarves
2. All blimps and Zeppelines are airships
and dirigibles. true or false ?
3. What is the Goldfish Club ?
4. Every nation has sovereign control of its airspace, but to what altitude does this sovereignty extend ?
5. Why do pilots of airplanes with radial
engines turn the propellers by hand before the fist flight of the day ?
6. The temperature of 100LL avgas in a truck
sitting in the sun on a hot day is 77 degrees F. instead of using this fuel,
a pilot uses fuel pumped from an underground tank where the fuel temperature
is 32 degrees F. by approximately what percentage does this extend the range
of the aircraft ?
7. Under what circumstance should a pilot
start an engine with the fuel value in the Off position ?
8. Why is a taildragger more unstable during
ground operations then an airplane with tricycle landing gear ?
9. A flying automobile has been the dream of many aircraft designers. Although many have been built and certified by the FAA or its predecessor, the Civil Aeronautics Administration (CAA). True or False ?
10. The Concorde supersonic transport has wing flaps. True or Flalse ?
11. The diesel engine, which might have future applications in general aviation, was invented by Rudolf Diesel. True or False ?
12. An Englishman departed Montreal in a glider (not a motorglider) and flew it across the Atlantic Ocean to southern England. True or False ?
13. In terms of the number of aircraft shot
down, who is the greatest ace of all time ? (An ace must have shot down at
14. For what aeronautical purpose was the tower atop the Empire State Building ( picture1 , pix2 , pix3 , pix4 , pix5 , pix6 ) originally intended ?
15. During World War II, American paratroopers were advised to yell when leaping from their airplanes to relieve pressure on their ears and lessen nervous tension. Why was it popular to yell the word "Geronimo" ?
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군사 박물관 파일럿 시계
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This is a mini course about aviation knowledge
for every aviation enthusiast who would like to know any concerning aviation
Tell your friends who would be interested in this amazing aviation knowledge page at www.koonysun.com/avi_knowledge.htm which would be appreciated.
.... Ms. Yukiko Sakurai
.... Koony Sun
.....Update on April 2nd, 2011